Homework 2 Due Date: April 29, 1999 Points: 100 Short-Answer Questions These can be answered in a sentence or two, and are intended to reinforce important points. 1. (3 points) What is a race condition? (Tanenbaum, problem 2.5) 2. (4 points) What are the Bernstein conditions? 3. (4 points) What conditions must a solution to the critical section problem meet?. 4. (4 points) Suppose someone devised a new synchronization primitive she claimed were as powerful as sema- phores. How would she prove this claim? Long-Answer Questions These questions require some thought and longer answers than the short-answer questions. They are intended to have you use the concepts discussed in class, to be sure you understand them and can work with them. 5. (15 points) A binary semaphore is most commonly defined as a semaphore whose integer value can range only between 0 and 1. (This is slightly different than Tanenbaum's definition on p. 68, but is more common.) Imple- ment counting semaphores using binary semaphores. (variation of Tanenbaum, problem 2.11) 6. (20 points) Instead of test-and-set, some computers provide an atomic instruction that sets the new value to 1 greater than its old value, as shown here: function testandinc(var lock: integer): integer; begin testandinc := lock; lock := lock + 1; end (* testandinc *) Show how to use this instruction to implement locks. (Hint: you must be wary of integer overflow.) 7. (25 points) On page 77 of the text, Tanenbaum claims that the program in Fig. 2-18 solves the Dining Philoso- phers' problem. Either prove or disprove this claim. If the claim is false, fix the program (that is, implement a solution to the dining philosophers' problem using semaphores). 8. (25 points) Synchronization within monitors uses condition variables and two special operations, wait and sig- nal. A more general form of synchronization would be to have a single primitive, waituntil, that had an arbitrary Boolean predicate as parameter. Thus, one could say, for example, waituntil x < 0 or y + z < n The signal primitive would be no longer needed. This looks more general than that of Hoare or Brinch Hansen, but is not used. a. Show that waituntil is as general as Hoare's scheme (that is, any monitor using Hoare's wait and signal prim- itives can be written using it.) Is it in fact more general? Justify. b. Why is this form not used in practise? (Hint: think about the implementation.) (Tanenbaum, problem 2.13) Extra Credit 9. (5 points) When a message is sent to a sleeping process in MINIX, the procedure ready is called to put that pro- cess in the proper scheduling queue. This procedure starts out by disabling interrupts. Explain. (Tanenbaum, problem 2.30) 10. (5 points) The MINIX procedure mini_rec contains a loop. Explain what it is for. (Tanenbaum, problem 2.31) 11. (5 points) Can the precedence graph below be implemented using parbegin and parend?