- What are the values of the integer variables
*x*and*y*when the following program completes? (If either variable could have more than one value, say why.)y = 2; parbegin x = y * 2; y = 6; parend;

- Is the following true or false? Justify your answer. "When several processes access shared information in primary storage, mutual exclusion must be enforced to prevent the production of indeterminant results."
- Process A should finish before process B starts, and process B should finish before either of processes C or D start. Show how these processes may use two semaphores to provide the necessary synchronization.
- A
*bounded semaphore s*is a counting semaphore that cannot exceed a given value**smax**> 0. The corresponding**up**and**down**operations are:up(s): wait until s < smax; then increment s by 1 down(s): wait until s > 0; then decrement s by 1

Write a monitor to implement bounded semaphores. (: assume the semaphore is to be initialized to the constant**Hint****SINIT**and the maximum value is**SMAX**.) - Suppose a scheduling algorithm (at the level of short-term scheduling) favors those programs which have used little processor time in the recent past. Why will this algorithm favor I/O bound programs and yet not permanently starve CPU bound programs?
- Assume you have been given the following jobs
with the indicated arrival and service times:
**name****arrival time****service time**A 0 3 B 2 5 C 4 2 D 6 1 E 8 4 - When, and in what order, would these jobs run if the scheduling algorithm were first come first serve?
- When, and in what order, would these jobs run if the scheduling algorithm were shortest job next?
- When, and in what order, would these jobs run if the scheduling algorithm were round robin with a quantum of 2? Assume that if events are scheduled to happen at exactly the same time, that new arrivals precede terminations, which precede quantum expirations.

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