This algorithm solves the critical section problem for n processes in software. The basic idea is that of a bakery; customers take numbers, and whoever has the lowest number gets service next. Here, of course, “service” means entry to the critical section.
1. var choosing: shared array[0..n1] of boolean; 2. number: shared array[0..n1] of integer; ... 3. repeat 4. choosing[i] := true; 5. number[i] := max(number[0],number[1],...,number[n1]) + 1; 6. choosing[i] := false; 7. for j := 0 to n1 do begin 8. while choosing[j] do (* nothing *); 9. while number[j] <> 0 and number[j], j) < (number[i],i) do 10. (* nothing *); 11. end; 12. (* critical section *) 13. number[i] := 0; 14. (* remainder section *) 15. until false;
lines 1–2: Here, choosing[i] is true if process i is choosing a number. The number that process i will use to enter the critical section is in number[i]; it is 0 if process i is not trying to enter its critical section.
lines 4–6: These three lines first indicate that the process is choosing a number (line 4), then try to assign a unique number to the process process i (line 5); however, that does not always happen. Afterwards, process i indicates it is done (line 6).
lines 8–11: Now we select which process goes into the critical section. Process i waits until it has the lowest number of all the processes waiting to enter the critical section. If two processes have the same number, the one with the smaller name — the value of the index — goes in; the notation “(a,b) < (c,d)”; means true if a < c or if both a = c and b < d (lines 9–10). Note that if a process is not trying to enter the critical section, its number is 0. Also, if a process is choosing a number when process i tries to look at it, process i waits until it has done so before looking (line 8).
line 14: Now process i is no longer interested in entering its critical section, so it sets number[i] to 0.

ECS 150, Operating Systems Version of April 17, 2022 at 9:30PM

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