# Outline for November 15, 2006

1. Greetings and felicitations!
1. Puzzle of the day
2. Use of public key cryptosystem
1. Normally used as key interchange system to exchange secret keys (cheap)
2. Then use secret key system (too expensive to use public key cryptosystem for this)
3. RSA
1. Provides both authenticity and confidentiality
2. Go through algorithm:
Idea: C = Me mod n, M = Cd mod n, with ed mod Φ(n) = 1
Proof: MΦ(n) mod n = 1 [by Fermat's theorem as generalized by Euler]; follows immediately from ed mod Φ(n) = 1
Public key is (e, n); private key is d. Choose n = pq; then Φ(n) = (p−1)(q−1).
3. Example: p = 5, q = 7; then n = 35, Φ(n) = (5−1)(7−1) = 24. Pick d = 11. Then ed mod Φ(n) = 1, so e = 11
To encipher 2, C = Me mod n = 211 mod 35 = 2048 mod 35 = 18, and M = Cd mod n = 1811 mod 35 = 2.
4. Example: p = 53, q = 61; then n = 3233, Φ(n) = (53−1)(61−1) = 3120. Pick d = 791. Then e = 71
To encipher M = RENAISSANCE, use the mapping A = 00, B = 01, ..., Z = 25, b̷ = 26.
Then: M = RE NA IS SA NC Eb̷ = 1704 1300 0818 1800 1302 0426
So: C = (1704)71 mod 3233 = 3106; etc. = 3106 0100 0931 2691 1984 2927

 You can also obtain a PDF version of this. Version of November 16, 2006 at 3:50 PM