Outline for April 14, 1997
1. Greetings and Felicitations
a. Remember, talks about what you could do are at the end of this week
2. History
a. IBM did Lucifer, submitted it in response to NIST CFP
b. NIST (really, NSA) suggested some minor changes; major one was to make key
56 bits, not 112.
3. Show the cipher
a. Product cipher with 64 bits in, 64 bits out, and 16 48-bit round keys generated
from 56 bit key
b. Note S-boxes are real heart of algorithm
4. Known attacks and weaknesses
a. Complementation property: DESk(m) = (DESk¼(m¼))¼ where x¼ is the bitwise com-
plement of x;
b. Weak, semiweak keys
c. If it¼s a group, multiple encipherment worthless (as group is closed under composi-
tion)
d. differential cryptanalysis: first version unusable as at 16 rounds, more plaintext/
ciphertext pairs needed than exhaustive key trial; but for 15 rounds, cuts this time.
Later versions cut it to 247 tries. Works by comparing xors of results with xors of
corresponding plaintext.. Designers of DES knew about this one, hence the
design of the S-boxes
e. linear cryptanalysis drops required chosen plaintext/ciphertext pairs to 242; not
known to designers of DES.
5. DES Modes
a. ECB
b. CBC
c. note that OFB and CFB exist, essentially use DES as a pseudorandom bitstream
generator; OFB feeds back before xor, CFB after
d. Triple DES and EDE mode