# Outline for January 19, 1999

1. Greetings and felicitations!
1. lassen should be reachable from anywhere in the department. I'm working on having it recognize the rest of the Internet!
2. ACM and primitive operations
1. Go over subjects, objects (includes subjects), and state (S, O, A) where A is ACM
2. Transitions modify ACM entries; primitive operations follow
3. enter r into A[s,o]
4. delete r from A[s,o]
5. create subject s' (note A[s',x] = A[x,s'] = ø for all x)
6. create object o' (note A[x,o'] = ø for all x)
7. destroy subject s'
8. destroy object o'
3. Commands
1. command c(s1, ..., sk, o1, ..., ok)
if r1 in A[s1, o1] and
r2 in A[s2, o2] and
...
rm in A[sm, om]
then
op1;
op2;
...;
opn;
end.
2. Example 1: creating a file
command create_file(p, f)
create object f;
enter Own into A[p, f]
enter Write into A[p, f]
end.
3. Example 2:granting one process read rights to a file
if Own in A[p, f]
then
enter
end.
4. What is the safety question?
1. An unauthorized state is one in which a generic right r could be leaked into an entry in the ACM that did not previously contain r. An initial state is safe for r if it cannot lead to a state in which r could be leaked.
2. Question: in a given arbitrary protection system, is safety decidable?
5. Mono-operational protection systems: decidable
1. Theorem: there is an algorithm that decides whether a given mono-operational system and initial state is safe for a given generic right.
2. Proof: finite number of command sequences; can eliminate delete, destroy.
Ignore more than one create as all others are conditioned on access rights in the matrix. (One exception: no subjects; then we need one create subject).
Bound: s number of subjects (possibly one more than in original), o number of objects (same), g number of generic rights; number of command sequences to inspect is at most 2gso.
6. General case: It is undecidable whether a given state of a given protection system is safe for a given generic right.
1. Represent TM as ACM; reduce halting problem to it
7. Take-Grant

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Department of Computer Science
University of California at Davis
Davis, CA 95616-8562