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72 334 M -0.592(Interest in computer security has grown in the past few years [)W
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54 348 M 0.886(evident than in colleges and universities. Perhaps a rising awareness of potential threats en-)W
54 362 M -0.177(courages students to explore this area; perhaps the desire of businesses and industry in general)W
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72 530 M (A)S
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54 544 M 0.865(bringing together seemingly unrelated \(or distantly related\) parts of these subareas, students)W
54 558 M -0.202(learn how integral computer security is to computer science, and how deeply it involves math-)W
54 572 M -0.123(ematics and computer system science. )W
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54 586 M 0.634(pends, of course, on the time available and the level and quality of the students. In addition,)W
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54 614 M (icy)S
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72 628 M -0.746(As we use the term \322computer security)W
-0.779 N -0.746(,\323 we mean both mathematical cryptography and oth-)W
54 642 M -0.075(er techniques for protecting a computer system \(including protocols which use cryptography\);)W
54 656 M 0.33(the latter we shall refer to as \322computer systems security)W
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54 72 M -0.456(recommended: a survey course, followed by advanced courses on cryptography and system se-)W
54 86 M (curity)S
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54 114 M -0.647(for such courses. In this paper)W
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54 128 M 0.448(taught and why)W
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54 142 M 0.042(itous. Further)W
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72 220 M -0.394(This course \(taught in 1989\) covered both cryptography and computer system security)W
-0.779 N -0.394(, and)W
54 234 M 0.121(both graduate and under)W
-0.214 N 0.121(graduate students attended. )W
-0.214 N (W)S
-0.958 N 0.121(e used [)W
(4)S
0.121(] as the text and supplemented)W
54 248 M (it with a variety of papers.)S
72 262 M -0.459(Because students would have to analyze various protocols and algorithms, and use elemen-)W
54 276 M 1.073(tary number theory)W
-0.779 N 1.073(, the prerequisites included a course in analysis of algorithms \(which, in)W
54 290 M 0.2(turn, required a working knowledge of a higher)W
-0.237 N 0.2(-level programming language\). )W
-0.214 N (W)S
-0.958 N 0.2(e did not re-)W
54 304 M 0.677(quire an operating systems course, but did expect all students to have completed a course in)W
54 318 M -0.036(computer architecture, and when needed spent a few minutes discussing how the relevant part)W
54 332 M -0.045(of the operating system worked. )W
-0.214 N -0.045(This seemed to be quite suf)W
-0.214 N (\336)S
-0.045(cient. Finally)W
-0.779 N -0.045(, all students had to)W
54 346 M -0.068(have taken a course in software engineering, which proved invaluable when we discussed for)W
-0.237 N (-)S
54 360 M -0.32(mal veri\336)W
-0.32(cation and its practical implications \(as well as the complexity of integrating security)W
54 374 M (mechanisms into systems\).)S
72 388 M (W)S
-0.958 N 0.77(e followed the general outline of the text, although lectures brought the material up to)W
54 402 M 1.083(date. Mathematical cryptography and cryptographic protocols occupied the \336)W
1.083(rst month, and)W
54 416 M 0.593(computer system security \(except cryptographic protocols\) occupied the second. In this part,)W
54 430 M -0.682(we addressed disclosure and integrity using access control, and its compromise using malicious)W
54 444 M 1.082(logic and covert channels, and analysis of a system to determine if con\336)W
1.082(dentiality could be)W
54 458 M 1.147(compromised. From this we discussed information \337)W
1.147(ow models on which this analysis was)W
54 472 M 1.196(based, and techniques for performing such analyses, which led to program veri\336)W
1.196(cation. )W
-0.214 N (W)S
-0.958 N (e)S
54 486 M (concluded with techniques for compromising statistical databases.)S
72 500 M -0.3(As we \336)W
-0.3(rmly believe students learn best when having fun, we emphasized how to break ci-)W
54 514 M -0.635(phers in the \336)W
-0.635(rst part of the class \([)W
(7)S
-0.635(] supplied many examples\), and drew justi\336)W
-0.635(cation for coun-)W
54 528 M 2.139(termeasures and protocols from history \([)W
(12)S
2.139(] was outstanding in its history of codes and)W
54 542 M 0.473(codebreaking\). )W
-0.214 N 0.473(The system security part drew examples from well-known security violations)W
54 556 M -0.203(such as the Internet worm \(which introduced a discussion of malicious logic\). )W
-0.659 N -0.203(As computer vi-)W
54 570 M 0.238(ruses had begun appearing on campus, we spent a day talking about how the various types of)W
54 584 M 0.759(viruses worked, and what countermeasures were used, as well as other techniques being ex-)W
54 598 M -0.09(plored but not yet ready)W
-0.779 N -0.09(. )W
-0.214 N -0.09(The class found the question of what a computer virus on a multiuser)W
54 612 M 0.077(machine could do fascinating, especially since those machines had protection mechanisms al-)W
54 626 M (ready in place.)S
72 640 M 0.513(At Dartmouth, we are fortunate to have a computing center with a well-known and well-)W
54 654 M 0.558(established code of ethics. )W
-0.214 N 0.558(When we began discussing system security)W
-0.779 N 0.558(, we \336)W
0.558(rst looked at the)W
54 668 M -0.572(Computing Code of Ethics [)W
(18)S
-0.572(] and discussed what would and would not be allowed. )W
-0.214 N (Through-)S
54 682 M 0.124(out the class, we would point out questions of ethics, not to resolve them, but merely to make)W
54 696 M 0.666(students aware of them. No of)W
-0.214 N (\336)S
0.666(cial or computer center staf)W
-0.214 N 0.666(f member ever had even to repri-)W
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54 72 M -0.095(mand a student in this class; whether that speaks well for discussing ethics during the class, or)W
54 86 M (the morals of the students, or both, is left for the reader to ponder)S
-0.659 N (.)S
72 100 M 0.193(Each student was required to present research into a topic of their choice. Here the liberal)W
54 114 M -0.082(arts orientation of the College was clear; one of the presentations discussed the relationship of)W
54 128 M 1.113(laws to computer security violations, and another was a talk on a Soviet cipher used in the)W
54 142 M 0.239(1950s \(this was presented by a student majoring in both computer science and Russian\). )W
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54 156 M 0.101(work deepened students\325)W
-0.888 N 0.101( appreciation of how computer security af)W
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-0.779 N 0.101(, its)W
54 170 M (environment and societal and legal concerns.)S
72 184 M -0.382(Because there were both graduate and under)W
-0.214 N -0.382(graduate students taking the course, the survey)W
54 198 M -0.27(format seemed to work well; the students understood the more formal mathematics \(notably in)W
54 212 M (the theory and cryptography sections\), and all the students liked the course overall.)S
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72 276 M 1.128(Because mathematics and computer science are taught by the same department at Dart-)W
54 290 M -0.61(mouth, we decided to teach a course on mathematical cryptography)W
-0.779 N -0.61(. )W
-0.214 N -0.61(This was in part a response)W
54 304 M -0.737(to those students who enjoyed the survey course on computer security)W
-0.779 N -0.737(, and in part because other)W
54 318 M -0.154(students had been asking about the mathematical foundations of cryptography)W
-0.779 N -0.154(. )W
-0.214 N -0.154(The author and)W
54 332 M (a colleague \(J. Shallit\) collaborated on the course, dividing it into two parts.)S
72 346 M -0.318(The \336)W
-0.318(rst part, which the author taught, covered information theory and classical cryptogra-)W
54 360 M (phy)S
-0.779 N 1.086(. Because information theory is central to understanding the limits of cryptography)W
-0.779 N 1.086(, and)W
54 374 M 0.847(classical cryptosystems are so widely used and combine both pure and applied mathematics)W
54 388 M 0.866(and statistics, we believed it essential that the course cover these topics as well as the more)W
54 402 M -0.078(modern methods of cryptography \(which made up the second part of the course, taught by our)W
54 416 M (colleague\).)S
72 430 M -0.635(The classical portion covered basic information theory)W
-0.779 N -0.635(, monoalphabetic and polyalphabetic)W
54 444 M 0.378(substitution, linear feedback shift registers, rotor systems, and the Data Encryption Standard;)W
54 458 M 0.114(students are taught both how the ciphers work and how to cryptanalyze them. )W
-0.214 N 0.114(The course text)W
54 472 M -0.499(for this portion [)W
(13)S
-0.499(] provided the framework and many of the analytical techniques for this part)W
54 486 M 0.347(of the course, although we supplemented it with outside reading as appropriate \(for example,)W
54 500 M 0.941(the students read several papers from recent conferences when we discussed the DES\). Our)W
54 514 M -0.502(goal was to show \336)W
-0.502(rst, the building blocks upon which classical ciphers are based; second, how)W
54 528 M -0.448(ciphers evolved historically; and third, how classical ciphers could be attacked. )W
-0.214 N -0.448(This part of the)W
54 542 M 0.75(course included discussions of famous compromises in history)W
-0.779 N 0.75(, and anecdotes illustrated the)W
54 556 M (thesis that cryptosystems which may seem unbreakable usually are not.)S
72 570 M -0.689(All the students seemed to enjoy breaking ciphers. )W
-0.214 N -0.689(The techniques discussed in class ranged)W
54 584 M 0.832(from the statistical to the algebraic; further)W
-0.478 N 0.832(, to encourage students to play with simple cryp-)W
54 598 M 0.157(tanalysis, and to add spice to the course, every day students were given a cryptogram, and in-)W
54 612 M 0.406(vited to break it. )W
-0.214 N 0.406(These ranged from the very simple \(a portion of the poem \322The )W
-0.214 N (W)S
-0.958 N 0.406(alrus and)W
54 626 M 0.348(the Carpenter\323 enciphered using a simple substitution cipher\) to the challenging \(a transposi-)W
54 640 M -0.08(tion, then a substitution\). If the text being enciphered was not well known, an introduction de-)W
54 654 M 0.802(scribed the topic of the plaintext; to keep the puzzles fun, hints were given on the back.The)W
54 668 M 1.781(students enjoyed these; most got the early ones, and a few deciphered all of them. )W
-0.214 N (These)S
54 682 M 0.298(\322Quicktograms\323 were also chosen to provide a starting point for the day\325)W
-0.659 N 0.298(s discussion \(for ex-)W
54 696 M 1.094(ample, the transposition/substitution cipher led very naturally to a discussion of product ci-)W
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54 72 M 0.172(phers, of which the DES is one\). )W
-0.214 N 0.172(They also provided a very brief, valuable review of material)W
54 86 M (covered in the \336)S
(rst day or so.)S
72 100 M 0.61(One drawback of the classical portion was that most of the students had trouble with the)W
54 114 M 0.285(statistical techniques used to cryptanalyze ciphers. )W
-0.214 N 0.285(This suggests that when the course is next)W
54 128 M 0.581(taught, the instructors should review basic statistics, Bayesian decision functions, generating)W
54 142 M 0.077(functions, and probability theory)W
-0.779 N 0.077(. )W
-0.214 N 0.077(The alternative, requiring these as prerequisites, is unneces-)W
54 156 M 0.236(sary as the material can be covered fairly quickly when discussing their use; for example, the)W
54 170 M (nature of correlation can be explained when using it to break a C\276sar cipher)S
-0.659 N (.)S
72 184 M -0.308(The second part of the course, modern cryptography)W
-0.779 N -0.308(, began with public-key cryptosystems)W
54 198 M 0.209(and a review of number theory)W
-0.779 N 0.209(. )W
-0.214 N 0.209(Then we discussed pseudorandom number generation, proba-)W
54 212 M 0.564(bilistic encryption, applications, zero-knowledge proofs, and quantum cryptography)W
-0.779 N 0.564(. Numer)W
-0.237 N (-)S
54 226 M 1.441(ous papers augmented the text [)W
(3)S
1.441(]. In this portion of the course, the \322Quicktograms\323 were)W
54 240 M 0.948(discontinued, as little cipher)W
-0.237 N 0.948(-breaking was done due to the complexity of the cryptosystems)W
54 254 M -0.072(\(but potential weaknesses were thoroughly discussed; again, the students seemed to enjoy this)W
54 268 M (most of all\).)S
72 282 M 0.529(Each student also had to present a paper on some aspect of cryptography)W
-0.779 N 0.529(. )W
-0.659 N 0.529(Again, the stu-)W
54 296 M 0.553(dents seemed to learn quite a bit from this, and some of the talks were excellent. )W
-0.214 N 0.553(The papers)W
54 310 M -0.317(presented ranged from using cryptography in an electronic banking network [)W
(9)S
-0.317(] to randomized)W
54 324 M 0.221(encryption techniques [)W
(17)S
0.221(], and each presented a facet of cryptography or its applications not)W
54 338 M (covered in class.)S
72 352 M -0.166(Because of the mathematical subject matter)W
-0.478 N -0.166(, students had to have a course in abstract alge-)W
54 366 M 1.452(bra. Many modern cryptosystems are quite breakable theoretically)W
-0.779 N 1.452(, and draw their strength)W
54 380 M 0.269(from the computational infeasibility of the attack. Since the course discussed why the attacks)W
54 394 M -0.032(were often computationally infeasible, students also had to have a course in the analysis of al-)W
54 408 M 0.582(gorithms. )W
-0.659 N 0.582(As discussed above, had students had a course in statistics and/or probability)W
-0.779 N 0.582(, they)W
54 422 M -0.526(would have found the course easier; but this should probably have been strongly recommended)W
54 436 M (rather than a prerequisite.)S
72 450 M 1.223(Again, student reaction to the course was good. )W
-0.214 N (W)S
-0.958 N 1.223(e were able to explore the subject in)W
54 464 M 0.01(depth, but there is an abundance of material that we did not cover; this could easily have been)W
54 478 M (two separate courses, one on classical cryptography and the other on modern cryptography)S
-0.779 N (.)S
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-0.779 N 0.415(. It)W
54 556 M 0.002(is somewhat similar to the one described in [)W
(1)S
0.002(], but dif)W
-0.214 N 0.002(fers in emphasis and topics; we discuss)W
54 570 M 0.245(the mathematical foundations of computer security somewhat more than the course in [)W
(1)S
0.245(] ap-)W
54 584 M -0.399(pears to, and cover a somewhat dif)W
-0.214 N -0.399(ferent list of topics. )W
-0.214 N (W)S
-0.958 N -0.399(e should point out that this course was)W
54 598 M (\336)S
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54 612 M (so what is presented is the outline of the course from 1990 as modi\336)S
(ed for 1993.)S
72 626 M (W)S
-0.958 N -0.703(e started with a discussion of the problem: what is system security and why are computers)W
54 640 M 1.05(not secure? )W
-0.214 N 1.05(This led naturally to a discussion of policy and mechanism, and general design)W
54 654 M 1.087(principles. During this time we discussed \322crackers,\323 privacy)W
-0.779 N 1.087(, responsibilities of users, pro-)W
54 668 M 0.461(grammers, and system managers, the )W
-0.659 N 0.461(ACM Code of Ethics [)W
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54 682 M 0.107(Ethics. In this way)W
-0.779 N 0.107(, students were given guidelines on what was acceptable and what was not,)W
54 696 M (and whom to talk to should they need help to resolve a problem.)S
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54 114 M -0.594(of and object on a computer system controls access to that object, the discussion on privacy and)W
54 128 M -0.233(ethics led directly into how users and systems could identify each other; we answered by com-)W
54 142 M 1.493(paring dif)W
-0.214 N 1.493(ferent authentication schemes using the framework in [)W
(2)S
1.493(]. Examples were drawn)W
54 156 M -0.323(from systems the students used daily as well as other sources; and students were often asked to)W
54 170 M -0.533(analyze these mechanisms for weaknesses, and then either suggest remedies or \336)W
-0.533(gure out a bet-)W
54 184 M (ter design.)S
72 198 M -0.657(Then came formal modelling, the goal being to see how easy or hard it is to provide security)W
54 212 M -0.108(in a theoretic sense. )W
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54 226 M 0.134(els. Using these, we examined the dif)W
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54 240 M -0.58(ary\) and access control mechanisms \(capabilities, access control lists, )W
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54 254 M (were implemented in computer systems.)S
72 268 M -0.293(Because access controls limit both disclosure and modi\336)W
-0.293(cation, we sprang from security to)W
54 282 M (integrity)S
-0.779 N 0.637(. Here, we again began with a survey of formal models. Implementing these models)W
54 296 M -0.487(requires a notion of \322trust\323 or \322certi\336)W
-0.487(cation\323 of programs as being of high integrity \(see [)W
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54 310 M 0.524(70-71, for a marvelous discussion of the relationship between trust and integrity\); to demon-)W
54 324 M 0.149(strate the threat, we discussed malicious logic \(T)W
-0.419 N 0.149(rojan horses, computer viruses, and their ilk\))W
54 338 M -0.025(and showed how each model would deal with such programs. )W
-0.214 N (W)S
-0.958 N -0.025(e then showed how important)W
54 352 M 0.296(the assumptions were by showing how the system could be subverted if trust were misplaced)W
54 366 M 0.41(\(as an introduction to this issue, we used an incident in which an infected anti-virus program)W
54 380 M (was used to disinfect a personal computer\).)S
72 394 M 0.582(The trust required is twofold; in addition to trusting the certi\336)W
0.582(cation process \(or the soft-)W
54 408 M -0.035(ware on the system\), one also needs to trust the system security mechanisms to implement the)W
54 422 M 0.724(model correctly)W
-0.779 N 0.724(. )W
-0.214 N (W)S
-0.958 N 0.724(e began with the second part, looking at the notion of reference monitors)W
54 436 M 0.549(and security kernels, and how trusted path techniques worked. )W
-0.214 N (W)S
-0.958 N 0.549(e then tackled the \336)W
0.549(rst part,)W
54 450 M -0.516(looking at the formal speci\336)W
-0.516(cation and veri\336)W
-0.516(cation of systems, especially at methodologies and)W
54 464 M -0.551(tools for proving speci\336)W
-0.551(cations, how speci\336)W
-0.551(cations could be implemented accurately)W
-0.779 N -0.551(, and com-)W
54 478 M (piler and information \337)S
(ow techniques for analyzing potential paths of disclosure.)S
72 492 M 0.268(Because most computer systems are connected to other systems, we next looked at issues)W
54 506 M -0.617(in network security)W
-0.779 N -0.617(. )W
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[/CropBox[-18 784 FmDC 594 -8 FmDC]/PAGE FmPD
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[/CropBox[-18 784 FmDC 594 -8 FmDC]/PAGE FmPD
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%%EOF